### Smore Lab

Problem:  Given a certain quantity of marshmallows, graham crackers, and chocolate pieces, what is the maximum number of S’mores that can be made?  Then figure out your percent yield!

 Substance Symbol Graham Cracker (half of a cracker) Gc Marshmallow M Chocolate Piece (individual piece of chocolate) Cp S’more  (2 crackers, 3 pieces of chocolate, 1 marshmallow) Gc2MCp3

Procedure/data:

1. Use the 3 different reactants and one product to write a balanced equation for the making of s’mores

2 Gc +    M + 3Cp →   Gc2MCp3

2. What type of reaction would this be classified as?

Chemical and physical changes.

3. Record the total moles (pieces) of each reactant available at your table

Graham Cracker (Gc)-  6 Marshmallow (M)-  4       Chocolate Pieces (Cp)- 9

(amount of halfs of Gc) (each single marshmallow) (each single chocolate piece- 12 per bar)

4. What is the maximum number of s’mores that your group can make?

Why? The maximum number of s’mores is 3 because graham cracker and chocolate pieces are the limiting reactant and only consist of a certain amount that is enough to make 3 s’mores.

Which reactant/s is/are limiting?  (the one/s that you will run out of first) : graham cracker, chocolate pieces

Which reactant/s is/are  in excess (the one/s that will be left over) : marshmallow

5. Find the mass of one of each of the individual reactants (first zero a napkin and then find the mass on top of the napkin)

Graham Cracker (Gc)- 8.17g Marshmallow (M) – 4g Chocolate Piece (Cp)- 3g

(one halfs of Gc)       (one single marshmallow)      (one single chocolate piece)

6. Record the theoretical yield/mass of a S’more (Gc2MCp3) using your reactants (you can add them together)

[(8.17*2) + (4) + (9)] = 29.34 g

a. Make sure that you follow the chemical reaction equation and get all of the reactants ready.

b. roast your marshmallows over the Bunsen burner using a skewer. And then make your finished product.

c. Before eating your s’more find the actual mass (yield) of your s’more

(put a napkin on the scale, zero the scale and THEN put on your smore).

The ACTUAL (experimental) mass of one s’mores: 29 g

8. Find the percent yield of your s’mores:.       Theoretical yield = from part 6 Actual or experimental yield= from part 7c

(29/29.34) * 100

percent yield=98.84%

### Healthcare System in Cambodia

As you may know, Cambodia is a developing country and there are so many areas that we still have to concern about, one of which is how the current healthcare system work. Although our country government and many other organizations had invested in a lot of hard work into fulfilling the flaws we had in the system, the healthcare system in Cambodia hasn’t yet reached a level that we wanted to. Many medical centers were built in different places around the country and more people can now easily access the health services. The only problem is “health centers don’t treat people, people treat people.” Having many health centers is not enough unless there is someone there to serves their fellow citizen with quality health services.

For the first round of the school year 2018-2019, I attended a class called the Healthcare System in Cambodia which will continue in the second round as well. Our goal in this exploration round was to reach out to as many experts and organizations as possible in order to collect different perspectives on how Cambodia Healthcare System should be improved and those perspectives will act as the inspiration for each project we’ll be working on in the next round exploration.

On the first day of class, we did individual research on the different topic on questions we had related to healthcare system in Cambodia. I personally really interested in laboratory system in Cambodia, so that’s obviously the topic I did the research on. It had interested me more when I found that there was only one main lab that exists in Cambodia. Basically, in a lab, they worked on various projects: close observation of bacterias and viruses, the different type of infectious diseases, the Pentagon resistance to the current treatment.

The information I got from the research had brought up questions within me. After all the research I’ve done, I was still confused about laboratory role in the country and how those discoveries contribute to the healthcare system improvement.

Though for the next couple weeks, I took some break from the laboratory and started to get into people’s opinion on how the healthcare system should look like and what can we do to improve it. A lot of places we’d been to always mentioned the lack of human resources and high-quality types of equipment while some also mentioned doctor’s ethnicity, leadership, and hospital hygiene. However, I was looking forward to having someone mention something related to the laboratory system in Cambodia. But there hadn’t been anyone seems to interest in talking about that topic.

That is why I was inspired to work on a project related to lab research for the next round exploration. You might be wondering how is that connect to the healthcare system in Cambodia at the moment. I personally think that having a strong lab system will help to improve the healthcare system in a country. Labs and health centers work as one. Labs could do research on the effectiveness of any new treatment that is out so that we don’t have to wait for the result of the other country’s research; labs could do a research on the resistance of pathogens toward the current treatment we have and try to work out what could hospital do when they meet the patient with that certain disease or condition; lab could do a research on many more projects that could really bring a really valuable information for treatment in Cambodia hospitals. I strongly believe that labs do play an important role in improving healthcare system in our country that is why I will be working on a get-to-know-lab project and hoping that more Cambodia college students would find research field interesting and consider working in a lab as their career, more labs will be open in Cambodia, and more fund will go into the research field as well.

### Flame Test Lab

Objective: To observe the relationship between various elements and their emission spectrum.

Introduction:

Flame tests provide a way to qualitatively test for the presence of specific elements by seeing colored flames.  The heat of the bunsen burner excites the electrons in the atom, and this energy is released as the electrons “fall back” to their ground states. The color we see is a combination of the visible wavelengths of light emitted by the atoms.

If you have a spectroscope you can also make quantitative observations. A spectroscope can be used to see a pattern of narrow lights called an emission (bright-line) spectrum.  The actually wavelengths of the spectrum serve as a quantitative test to determine atoms identities.  Each element has a different “pattern” of electrons so it will show a different combination of colors.

In this lab, you will perform flame tests on seven different elements. You will use your observations to identify an unknown solution.

Prelaboratory Questions: (In a section labeled PRELAB- answer the following questions in FULL sentences)

1. Why do we see colors in the flame tests?

The increase in temperature makes the electrons excited and move to a higher energy level. They produce visible light as they return back to the ground state.

1. How will we be testing the substances qualitatively?

One way could be comparing the color of flame (of each element) with the Bhor model.

Materials:

Safety goggles, wood splints, tongs/tweezers, Bunsen burner, test tubes with various compounds

Safety:

1. Safety goggles must be worn at all times
2. Many of these salts are toxic. If you come into contact with any of the compounds make sure to notify the teacher and wash the contacted area thoroughly. Wash your hands before leaving the lab!

Procedure:

1. Light the Bunsen burner (turn the gas on so you can just hear it, then use the striker)
2. Place the wood splint for each compound into the flame using tongs or tweezers- ONE AT A TIME!
3. Take note of the color of the flame and return the wood splint to the solution.
4. CLEAN UP YOUR STATION! Carefully put the stoppers back on the solutions! Make sure the station looks like it did when you started! Let me know if you need new splints!
5. Wash your hands thoroughly before leaving the laboratory

Data Table: make a section of your lab labeled Data Table and make a data table similar to the one below to record your observations.

 Compound The color of Flame (qualitative) Wavelengths of light (in Å) (quantitative) Barium Chloride Yellow (light) 600 nm Calcium Chloride Orange 630 nm Copper (II) Chloride Green 550 nm Lithium Chloride Red 665 nm Potassium Chloride Pinkish-orange 647.5 nm Strontium Chloride Red 665 nm

Discussion and Analysis: (In a section labeled Discussion and Analysis answer the following questions in complete sentences)

1. How do your results from the flame test provide support for quantized energy levels? Explain your answer.

The heat made the atom’s element excited and move to a higher energy level. The atoms emitted photons of visible light while returning back to the ground state.

Conclusion: (answer in a complete paragraph and in complete sentences)

What are two possible sources of error for this lab? How would the errors affect your lab? What would you do differently next time to counteract these errors?

There were many barriers in this experiment: the inconsistency of how much element should be put onto the stick, how to make sure the flame is actually burning the element but not the stick. These sources of error can lead to the inaccuracy in color of the flame. If we were to redo this lab, we need to make sure that the same amount of element goes on the stick and that the flame is actually burning them. We should repeat each burning process at least three times for each element.

### SAT Prep. in Math Class

Over 50% of Liger students, including me, will end this school term with SAT Exams, which I surprisingly really excited about but also nervous at the same time. The exams will be held in Liger campus on the upcoming October 6th. I had tried to spend as much time as possible into doing intense practice for the SAT mainly use Khan Academy but also SAT textbook; it had been hard to manage to do so due to the amount of homework I receive from school.

Math period had always been a time for me to study math deeply to prepare for the SAT. I can always ask my math facilitator for any math problems I struggle with. With the help from my facilitator and the self-study I’ve done, I had made a significant jump in my math SAT score.

My goal in this upcoming SAT specifically in the math section, I hope I will get no more than ten questions wrong which means I plan to get 670 or above. There are many strategies that you could use to save time during the SAT exams. Those strategies could be as simple as choosing the right way to solve each question and don’t always depend on the calculator.

For this specific questions, instead of plug in and solve, you can use the eliminate strategy:

x +   y = -9

x + 2y = -25

Subtract both equations and we get:

y = -16

Plug in the easiest equation and quickly solve for x.

Compare to plug in and solve, this strategy saves a lot of time. If you were to do the plugin and solve strategy:

y = -x – 9

x + 2(-x – 9) = -25

This might seems easy for this particular question, but for a lot of time in SAT, this strategy is really time-consuming and during the process of solving, you might face some stressful number like fractions as well.

In SAT exams, you got no time to waste. You can always use each second you save for the harder questions you meet. Though, you should prioritize getting the easy and straightforward questions done before spending time, solving for the harder one because each question worth the same amount of point.

Through many practices throughout the week, I feel really confident in a lot of material in math.

Though, there are still some questions that still bother me and a lot of those made up a really tiny percent of the SAT.

### SAT Bootcamp

On the first day of school after the two-month holiday, we had a P-SAT test which was really frustrating. What a way to start the next school year!

As mentioned, we started this school year very differently with SAT Bootcamp for the first two weeks because many of us will be taking the real SAT exam in the upcoming October 6th which including me as well. We had three different classes in total: math, English, and an extra class for Bootcamp homework and also a class to catch up with some new information about college.

This SAT Bootcamp was just like any other SAT Bootcamp. In English section, we always started class with 10 pairs of the most confusing words in English and the rest of the class time will be focused mostly on studying each strategy to answering the different type of questions efficiently. One of my most favorite strategies was the elimination strategy. This strategy was really useful when it comes to the command of evidence question (COE). It’s really hard to explain the way I handled this type of question. Basically, I read the part A question and then go straight to the COE because instead of reading each well-written answers that are very tricky and confusing in part A, I tried to figure out the answer in part B because it usually not as tricky and later on match it with the answer from part A.

We always end English class with a lot of homework. By a lot I mean A LOT; I remembered that one time when we got 80 SAT questions to get done overnight, plus the vocab homework which was to come up with example sentences for each vocabs questions which we would then share to our classmates in the next class period.

For the math section, we didn’t really have specific strategies for each type of math questions. So basically, we tried to do as many kinds of questions that can appear in SAT exams as possible. The class would basically start with our mentor showing some convenient way to solve a question. My favorite strategy that I wanted to highlight is polynomial division, which basically works like the normal division as well. I like it for a lot of reasons and not only that it’s getting me to the right answer very quickly but also it teaches me to not afraid of fractions, or abnormal numbers because there’s always a simple way to handle things.

SAT Bootcamp had taught me a lot of useful strategies for time-limiting exams and I definitely gonna use those while taking the real SAT exam.

### Filming Project at Battambang

A group of Liger students and I spend three weeks of our summer break, 14th of July until 4th of August, to work attend an opportunity at Battambang. We collaborate mainly with the crews from Human Resources and students from Phare Ponleu Selpak. Our goal is to successfully produce a feature film: a full one-to-six-hour movie or a documentary. While working at Battambang, each person in the team had a different role: interviewer, musician, an audio person, cameraman, director, etc., depending on what each person suit in best. A group of Liger students had worked with them before to create a music video in the previous project. It turns out so well that they’re back again to work with our group on another huge project as mentioned. Though, we still need to decide on what we’ll be doing in the upcoming September.

Instead of getting straight into work, we took classes with some staffs from Human resources on techniques in creating films. There were also some students from Phare Ponleu Selpak joining us as well. In class, we sometimes spend hours and hours analyzing pictures and films. And sometimes, we also have various, fun activities like doing a re-creation of La Strada, taking pictures of the unimportant, taking pictures of different hand motions, etc. I personally really enjoy doing the re-creation of La Strada, one of the films we had discussed in class, and this activity requires a strong collaboration and communication skills. Basically, we try to film another version of that one-minute scene and try to match the film perfectly in every second of the shot. I find it pretty difficult to get it right because one of our shot is a really long scene, if we mess up with a part, we need to redo it all over again. We were also having some problems with the phone camera as well because it started too low battery and we can’t just get it right which is really frustrating. At the end of the day, we completed the task and the film we took actually turn out to be really good.

After spending some weeks learning in class, we decided to get started with working on filming the Phare Ponleu Selpak (PPS) students. My role was to interview this time I like it because I’m not as skilled with the camera and those other jobs. I asked questions in various interviews with different people and it was really cool to hear very unique stories from a lot of people I met during this role I got.

During one of the project at Battambang, I was chosen to be the director of an interview with two dancers from PPS. It was really difficult for me to do my role that well at first because I’ve never been a director before. Being a director is as hard as learning to ride on two horses at a time. I really want to make sure each shot will turn out well: background should be perfect, the audio should be perfect, camera angle should be perfect, the light should be perfect, and the interviewees know what they’re doing. In general, it was just a really difficult role, but with support from friends and the crews, I was able to complete the tasks and move onto another project which was also directing, but this time, taking really cool shots with the circus performers.

That project was one of the biggest projects we did in that three weeks. Before the shooting start, I and my other four mates had discussed together and agreed on three shots we think are the best. We need to make sure all of the circus performers understand each shot clearly and that our cameraman also understands what we want each shot to look like. It was a really long. We re-shoot each shot at least twice because we want it to turn out as perfect as possible. And with good performers like PPS circus group and one of the Cameraman from Human Resources, everything turns out to really good that everyone on the team was really proud of.

We end the three-weeks project by hosting an exhibition, showing all of the products from what we had done in that whole busy weeks. There were printed photos of animals, hand motions, and beautiful art pieces by PPS students. There were also performances like singing and small circus shows that mostly prepared by the musician team as well. It was very fun and we glad a lot of people had joined us that day.

It was really worth spending my three weeks working day and night at Battambang because it really helps me discover that I do have potentials in filming. I always afraid to work in this kind of project because I’ve never been filming before. But getting to join this project make me realize that I actually really enjoy filming and directing films. We don’t have to have only passions; you can love many things at a time. I strongly believe that everyone has the potential to do anything they wanted to. You gotta believe in yourself and bring yourself to do it or else you will never the ability you have.

[A lot of pictures and videos won’t be able to be shown in this post yet due to the fact that this project is for someone’s business.]

### Dengue Fever Risks Analysis

Welcome to the Mosquito-borne Diseases exploration! This is one of the last round explorations of this school year 2017-2018 at Liger. We are a group of 12 students and a facilitator who is trying to study deeply about a very common mosquito-borne disease in Cambodia, Dengue Fever, that every Cambodian had heard of. Throughout the research, we had found that the number of Dengue Fever cases are doubled this year compared to the previous year. This information had encouraged us to pick this particular disease to focus on most. Currently in class, our teams are working on a project called ‘Risk Analysis’ where we have to survey villagers, analyze the data, and finally writing a report for the study ourselves.

The goal of this project is to estimate which village of the two are most likely to have a Dengue Fever outbreak in this upcoming raining season.

We start off by creating a team to work on the questionnaire. The questionnaire will only include the relevant questions and are not expected to be a long list of the question due to the time limit; we don’t have much time to interview as well as to analyze responses of each question. There was also another team that is working on figuring out routes that each team or pairs will be taking in order to avoid interviewing the same households.

On May 18th and 19th, 2018, our team went out of campus to do surveys of our neighborhood villages: Champus Kaek, Koh Krobey, one household followed by the other. We spend approximately 20 minutes to interview each household. The six pairs complete about 60 household in that morning in Champus Kaek village and are ready to keep on the work to interview the next village tomorrow, expecting to have a sample survey of 52 at least. After the two days, we end up interview 116 household in total which was really impressive.

My favorite part of the whole process is to be able to connect and feel the kindness and a warm welcoming from each person we’ve been walking through to interview them. They were really friendly in term of like respecting and letting some 15-year-old asking them questions. Getting the accurate answer from them is really important, so we have to make sure they are comfortable with telling us the information we need. I was glad to get to talk to and connect with all the villagers once again.

In the second village, Koh Krobey, we seem to run into an issue. Each route the group had divided doesn’t seem to share the same amount of household, so some group seems to struggle with completing the amount of survey they needed to get done with. I was also one of the groups who’s struggling. As I walk through the route, I try my best to ignore those dogs that were barking hard at us. After a few minutes, we make a decision to just meet up as a team and continue to interview the route with a lot of people which is another team route.

There were many flaws in making this report. There are a lot of different interviewers. So there’s a chance that we can interpret the question in a different way and receive a slightly inaccurate answer.

While analyzing the data, I was on a roll with the other three mates to work on analyzing the association between people’s behavior and their risk of getting dengue fever. Surprisingly, there isn’t any evidence of an association between them. This means that the risk of getting dengue fever is not influenced by their behavior.

Throughout this whole exploration, I had worked my hardest at all time! I asked a lot of questions and always pay all of my attention toward the lesson our facilitator had given us. Those questions had influenced my understanding of this topic very well. I had worked my best to connect all of the experiences from the last exploration like Surveying in Cambodia into writing the report. Lastly, I hope I had played my role well and had contributed every knowledge I have had toward making this project happen.

### How I Changed Cambodia 2017-2018

Grew up in a family that valued education most, I got to gulp up as much knowledge at school as the other friends of mine- I was too lucky that my gender and family condition couldn’t get in my way at all. I was born to feel really ravenous about becoming the expert who good at anything. Although I was a hardworking student, I sometimes afraid of anything new. I was afraid of leaving my comfort zone. A day followed by the other, I had not taken a step toward the next level of myself and I didn’t plan too.

I was once do not know what it really is to be a change agent. I used to believe that only grown-up could create changes- I’d been waiting for so long for the right time to move on to another level of myself.

Five years of hard working led me to an opportunity that will change my life forever. I finally took a step toward another level of myself. I took a test, and surprisingly, I didn’t even know what was going on at that time. I aced the test and got a scholarship to Liger Leadership Academy. I was introduced to a lot of -new- things. Through the support and encouragement from being here at Liger, I was able to fight through my fear and always bring myself to a next level.

I started seeing many people working on various, cool projects. I was amazed by seeing them being a change agent for my country. I was begging to be one of them as well. Being a student at Liger, I started to understand what really is like to be a change agent. I understand that changes don’t require to be huge. It can be as tiny as yourself using fewer plastics. This can seem to be very small, but it pays off a huge change in time.

This is my sixth year learning at Liger. This school year had been exciting! I’ve got to join many cool projects that were very spread in topics from helping people’ visions, documented Cambodia historical building, robotics to write a survey report and doing risk analysis with those complicated statistical calculations.

Surveying in Cambodia was one of the school-project explorations this year. We are a group of seven students and a facilitator. This project was requested by our school country director who was also one of the founder of a charity helping Cambodian children accessing to education called Camkids. Our mission was to determine the effects that Camkids had toward people from the three villages nearby and to discover the current issues those villagers faced and informed it to Camkids so that they can provide the right programs or services to help with people’ struggles.

After creating the questionnaire, we went off campus to Kampong Speu province and interviewed people from one household to another. We all really committed to this project. After completing the boring process of inputting the data, I was one of the two students who will be responsible for writing a long paper of Camkids report while the other five students are working on analyzing the data. We completed most of the report by the end of our exploration. Lastly, I was hoping that our hard work will pay off and the report will be able to represent villagers’ struggles well so that Camkids will be able to provide services to help fulfill those need as soon as possible.

Another project of mine this year was Mosquito-borne Disease. We are a group of 13 students and a facilitator who is looking deeply into common Mosquito-borne Diseases in Cambodia. Through doing some research on the internet, we had found that the number of Dengue Fever cases double significantly. That is why our exploration will be focusing closely on Dengue Fever.

This exploration seems to be a part two of my last exploration, Surveying in Cambodia. We are working on a project called risk analysis, where we’ll be creating a questionnaire and interviewing people from a household to another again. For this particular exploration, we’re only interviewing two villages which are nearby our school. Through looking the data that was collected, we will be able to find out which village will be most likely to have an outbreak of Dengue Fever in this raining season.

This report will hopefully be on the World Health Organization website.

We will run a one day clean up in one of the villages that were found to have a higher risk of the outbreak to collect all of the mosquito water-source habitats that will help in reducing its population. We also plane to run a campaign to promote the risk of getting Dengue Fever in this season in order to raise awareness to people to protect themselves from mosquito bites as well. We really don’t want Dengue Fever cases to double this year in Cambodia. I really hope this project will play an important role in reducing the risk of people getting Dengue Fever in Cambodia as well.

Although those changes don’t happen immediately like a snap of the hand, I strongly believe that it will play its role well after a certain amount of time.

I strongly encouraged anyone to believe in yourself because you have the ability. You can be one of us! You can be one of the change agents for your country. Don’t wait for the right time, make the time right for what you’re going to do.

In the future, I expect Cambodian children to access more technology as well as starting getting their heads into project-based learning. Whenever I struggle with something I always say this to myself “nothing is impossible, the word itself says I’m possible.”

### The Physics of Spider-man

On Monday, April 2nd, 2018, my Physics class started working on a new project called “The Physics of Superheroes” where each of us is supposed to choose a superhero that we interested, in which we will be research on the physics behind their superpowers. By the end of this project, each of us required writing a one-to-two page of well enough explanation about the complicated physics behind the superhero’s powers along with a poster that will display the important information from the writing paper as a visual product.

I chose to work on Spider-man and I was focusing on one of his superpower which was webbing. We need to properly identify the superpowers and connect them to laws of physics that exist in the real world. We also need to show that we understand most of the physics that we bring up in our paper as well as identifying which superpower is realistic and which is not. And last, I need to put enough effort into my poster and make sure that it can display important information in a creative way.

This project is really difficult for me personally because the physics behind Spider-man power is a really complex physic for me. It took me a lot of time to understand a concept. I finish my paper writing in four days and I started working on my poster the day after. This is actually how my poster turns out.

I actually really like that this project allows us to choose the superhero that we want to research about. I had learned a lot of incredible facts from this research project and I was really happy to learn that some superpower that seems nonsense can actually happen in the real world which is really impressive because it shows that we humans are really amazing! Through doing this project, it always reminded me of a quote that says “Nothing is impossible, the word itself says I’m possible!” Please enjoy my writing that I attached here.

### Camkids Surveying Exploration

On Sunday 4th of March 2018, a group of 17 students from the Liger Leadership Academy went on a trip to Kompong Speu (KPS) in the sight of interviewing people from the three villages: Chbar Chross, Trapaing Mian, and Ta Gnov. The purpose of this survey was to determine the effects that Camkids has had toward people from the three villages as well as discovering the current issues that those villagers face so that Camkids can provide services that help to solve those issues. This survey report was requested by Dominic Sharpe, country director of The Liger Leadership Academy and founder of CamKids.

The questionnaire was created by the Surveying Exploration, a group of seven students and a facilitator. I am really glad to be a part of the team because this project will help a lot with improving villagers’ lives. The question was divided into 4 main sections such as Incomes and Expenses which break down into Loan and Savings, Education, Health, and Nutrition. We spend the whole Sunday there at KPS and we determined to interview at least 80 families. Each survey took about 30 to 40 minutes. We interview individually so that we can get through as many families as possible. This includes asking questons and noting down responses as clearly as we can manage. At the end of the day, we get 103 interviews done. I really appreciate the work I’d done at KPS a lot because I had overcome the fear I had of walking toward someone and start a conversation.

It was a really hard task due to the time limits, but our group manages to get it done really well. Currently, we’re in the process of writing the report and analyzing the data. My role in the team was to start writing the report. It was a really hard task for me personally because the report is required to be as professional as possible. By writing this report, I had improved a lot with my writing skill especially on how to make my writing professionally. The final step is to present it to Dom and the other founder of Camkids and of course, upload it onto the school’s website.

If there a project related to surveying and creating a questionnaire, I think the experience I received from this exploration can be applied to that project perfectly. There were many experiences I got from this project such as creating a good questionnaire, interviewing and surveying people, and writing a professional report. Because we’re still students who learn to do this type of project and aren’t professional surveyors, there were many flaws in this survey report still.